Working Alongside People with Intellectual and Learning Disabilities

Disability Theory Resources

Becker, K. A. (2003).  History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales: Content and psychometrics. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Assessment Service Bulletin (5)1. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing. 16 pgs. 
This report discusses the historical development of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales from the original in 1916 to the newest addition in 2003. The Stanford- Binet Intelligence test is one of the most common intelligence test used today. It uses a range of psychometric tests to determine intelligence on a number of scales. The evolution of the scale is explored in the report with historical limitations and subsequent developments documented, although limitations of the most current scale- the Stanford-Binet 5 are not presented as critique was not available at time of publishing.
Chenoweth, L. and Clements, N. (2009). Final Report: Funding and service options for people with disabilities. School of Human Services and Social Work Griffith University. 55 pgs. 
The report details the outcomes of a collaborative study into the service provision to people with a disability nationally and internationally with the aim of finding out what could be adapted to suit the needs of people with a disability living in Queensland.
The current trends in funding and service provision for people with a disability, the features of effective approaches,  and standards used to measure effective provision of services are explored in the study as well how these could be implemented in Queensland.
The report finds that self directed care/individual funding and independent living with community service support are the current service provision trends. Some of the reported characteristics of effective models includes systematic allocation of individual funding, local area coordination, universal, mainstream services, de-compartmentalisation, and using a combination of formal and informal support. The article provides a good orientation to the variety of models used in Australia and nationally including cost analysis, case studies and diagrammatic representations of information. 
Oliver, M. (1990). The Individual and Social Models of Disability: Paper presented at Joint Workshop of the Living Options Group and the Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians on People with Established Locomotors Disabilities in Hospitals. Monday 23rd July 1990.
Oliver (1990) provides a clear and concise explanation of the individual and social models of disability. Oliver offers contextualisation the critique of the medicalisation of disability as part of the individual model of disability, not an attack on the medical profession and their knowledge. It is explained that the individual model locates the ‘problems’ associated with disability with the individual, where as the social model refutes that the individual is the cause of problems, but society’s inability to provide adequately for the diversity of needs of people with a disability. It is with the social model in mind that the critique of the medicalisation of disability occurs, as it is argued that doctors do not have the skills or knowledge required to address the social conditions that cause the ‘problem’ they believe requires treatment. Oliver also discusses the ideology of normality which bears a strong influence on how ‘disability’ is experienced in society today. 
Schroeder, S., Gerry, M., Gertz, G., Velazquez, F.,  Kansas University Centre on Developmental Disabilties. and the Centre for the Study of Family, Neighbourhood and Community Policy. (2002). Final Project Report: Usage of the Term “Mental retardation”: Language, Image and Public Education. University of Kansas. 255 pgs.
This report explores the use of the term ‘mental retardation’ in the U.S, but also includes international data. The report has four main focus areas. Firstly the trends in definitions used, which showed that those of the American Association on Mental Retardation and that used in the DSM- IV are most commonly used.  Secondly the usage of the term ‘mental retardation’ was surveyed internationally which found that ‘mental retardation was still most community used in the U.S, and ‘intellectual disability’ most common in the commonwealth countries such as Australia.
Thirdly, the label of ‘mentally retarded’ was explored in terms of how pejorative, that is-  denotes negative image, connotation and stereotyping is viewed generally, by parents, professional and families. Lastly, the effect of diagnosis, definition and label are discussed in the context of government policy and eligibility criteria for social services such as Medicaid which provides an example of how Australian policy could be analysed with the same focus.
Blatt, B and Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory: A Photographic  Essay on Mental Retardation. Human Policy Press: New York. 128 pgs. PDF 
Christmas is Purgatory is a photographic essay complied in 1965 after US Senator Robert Kennedy visited became aware of the horrific conditions inside institutions for the ‘mentally retarded’. Senator Kennedy’s reactions were the catalyst of the author’s project to document and expose the experiences of people living in institutions in the U.S. The photographic essay is in black and white still shots and not always the clearest of photographs due to the conditions under which the photographs were taken. The authors point that although the essay shows, the majority of institutions where inhumane, cruel and neglectful places that there are a few institutions and dedicated workers that represented a minority.
Atherton, H. (2005). Unit 2- A brief history of learning disability, in Getting it right together. University of Leeds. England.
Campbell, F. A. K. (2003). The Great Divide- Abelism and technologies of disability production. Centre for Social Change Research, School of Humanities and Human services, Queensland University of Technology. Brisbane. 440 pgs.
Commonwealth of Australia (2009). Shut Out: The Experience of People with Disabilities and their Families in Australia. National Disability Strategy Consultation Report. National People with Disabilities and Carer Council. Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra. 90 pgs.
Kudlick, C. (2003). Disability History: Why We Need Another “Other”. The American Historical Review (108)3.
Baker, B. (2002). The Hunt for Disability: The New Eugenics and the Normalization of School Children. Teachers College Record (104)4. Pp 663-703.
Davis, A. (n.d). Ian Hacking, learning disabilities and human taxonomies. Durham School of Education. Durham University. United Kingdom. 19 pgs.
Hacking, I. (n.d). Making Up People. Internet publication URL:
Klotz, J. (2001). Denying Intimacy: The Role of Reason and Institutional Order in the Lives of People with an Intellectual Disability.  Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Arts. University of Sydeny. Sydney. 19 pgs.
Mackey, P. J. (n.d). Crip Utopia and the future of disability. 
Oliver, M. J. (1999). Capitalism, disability and ideology: A materialist critique of the Normalization principle. First published in Flynn, R J. and Lemay, A. [eds] A Quarter-Century of Normalization and Social RoleValorization: Evolution and Impact.
Osburn, J. (2006). An Overview of Social Role Valorization Theory. First published in SRV/VRS: The International Social Role Valorization Journal(3) 1. Pp  7-12.
Quibell, R. (2004). Unmaking the other? Discourses of Intellectual Disability in Contemporary Society. Department of Sociology, Faculty of Life and Social Sciences. Swineburne University of Technology. Hawthorn Australia. 345 pgs.
Schalock, R., Luckasson, R. and Shorgren, K. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (45)2. Pp 116-124.