Seymour, S., Disability Theory Throughout History. Contact WWILD for copy.


Becker, K. A. (2003).  History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales: Content and psychometrics. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Assessment Service Bulletin (5)1. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

This report discusses the historical development of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales from the original in 1916 to the newest addition in 2003. The Stanford- Binet Intelligence test is one of the most common intelligence test used today. It uses a range of psychometric tests to determine intelligence on a number of scales. The evolution of the scale is explored in the report with historical limitations and subsequent developments documented, although limitations of the most current scale- the Stanford-Binet 5 are not presented as critique was not available at time of publishing. Available at: sb5_asb_1.pdf (


Blatt, B and Kaplan, F. (1974). Christmas in Purgatory: A Photographic  Essay on Mental Retardation. Human Policy Press: New York. 128 pgs. PDF

Christmas is Purgatory is a photographic essay complied in 1965 after US Senator Robert Kennedy visited became aware of the horrific conditions inside institutions for the ‘mentally retarded’. Senator Kennedy’s reactions were the catalyst of the author’s project to document and expose the experiences of people living in institutions in the U.S. The photographic essay is in black and white still shots and not always the clearest of photographs due to the conditions under which the photographs were taken. The authors point that although the essay shows, the majority of institutions where inhumane, cruel and neglectful places that there are a few institutions and dedicated workers that represented a minority. Available at: 


Atherton, H. (2005). Unit 2- A brief history of learning disability, in Getting it right together. University of Leeds. England. Available at


Campbell, F. A. K. (2003). The Great Divide- Abelism and technologies of disability production. Centre for Social Change Research, School of Humanities and Human services, Queensland University of Technology. Brisbane. Available at:  


Baker, B. (2002). The Hunt for Disability: The New Eugenics and the Normalization of School Children. Teachers College Record (104)4. pp. 663-703.


Klotz, J. (2001). Denying Intimacy: The Role of Reason and Institutional Order in the Lives of People with an Intellectual Disability.  Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Arts. University of Sydney, Sydney. Available at: 


Mackey, P. J. (n.d). Crip Utopia and the future of disability. 


Oliver, M. J. (1999). Capitalism, disability and ideology: A materialist critique of the Normalization principle. First published in Flynn, R J. and Lemay, A. [eds] A Quarter-Century of Normalization and Social RoleValorization: Evolution and Impact. Available at: 


Osburn, J. (2006). An Overview of Social Role Valorization Theory. First published in SRV/VRS: The International Social Role Valorization Journal(3) 1. pp.  7-12. Available at: 


Schalock, R., Luckasson, R. and Shorgren, K. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (45)2. pp. 116-124.